Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg portrait, c. 1895–1905 Rosa Luxemburg (; ; also ''Rozalia Luksenburg''; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28. Successively, she was a member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD) and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).

After the SPD supported German involvement in World War I in 1915, Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht co-founded the anti-war Spartacus League (''Spartakusbund'') which eventually became the KPD. During the November Revolution, she co-founded the newspaper ''Die Rote Fahne'' (''The Red Flag''), the central organ of the Spartacist movement. Luxemburg considered the Spartacist uprising of January 1919 a blunder, but supported the attempted overthrow of the government and rejected any attempt at a negotiated solution. Friedrich Ebert's majority SPD government crushed the revolt and the ''Spartakusbund'' by sending in the ''Freikorps,'' government-sponsored paramilitary groups consisting mostly of World War I veterans. ''Freikorps'' troops captured and summarily executed Luxemburg and Liebknecht during the rebellion.

Due to her pointed criticism of both the Leninist and the more moderate social democratic schools of socialism, Luxemburg has had a somewhat ambivalent reception among scholars and theorists of the political left. Nonetheless, Luxemburg and Liebknecht were extensively idolized as communist martyrs by the East German communist regime. The German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution asserts that idolization of Luxemburg and Liebknecht is an important tradition of the German far-left. Provided by Wikipedia
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by Luxemburg, Rosa,
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