Social Security : The Story of British Social Progress and the Beveridge Plan
1943 1943 1940s 3 preliminary leaves, 9-62 pages : illustrations, diagrams (3) SOCIAL SERVICES DEVELOPED (Chart 6) The typical social services of this century have been those which furnished income-maintenance to wage-earners as a right whenever earnings were interrupted or had ceased during the mai...
|Institution:||MCR - The Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick|
London : G.G. Harrap and Co.
3 preliminary leaves, 9-62 pages : illustrations, diagrams
(3) SOCIAL SERVICES DEVELOPED (Chart 6) The typical social services of this century have been those which furnished income-maintenance to wage-earners as a right whenever earnings were interrupted or had ceased during the main emergencies of their working lives and their old age. In 1939 old age pensions [superscript 1] (£94 million), unemployment pay (£90 million), and sick pay (£18 million) were the main items of expenditure, accounting altogether for a total social budget of £236 million. These main new services were all based on the contributory insurance plan. Workmen's Compensation (£6¾ million) and Public Assistance (Poor Law) (£24 million) filled up the gaps. Comparing 1939 with the year 1900, when the Poor Law was the only social service, we find that little more than £3 million per annum was spent on out-relief or income-maintenance at the opening of this century. This budget does not include social services in kind, such as institutional relief, education (which before this war was costing well over £100 million) or housing (over £20 million a year). Between 1920 and 1939 we built some four and a half million new houses of the working-class type (see Chart 5). Moreover, it is a notable fact that, in spite of the war, we have since 1939 expanded some of the social services listed above. In particular we have lowered the pension age for women from 65 to 60, thereby bringing in for pensions some 400,000 extra women who are either the wives of pensioners or are themselves insured ; and we have added a scheme of Supplementary Pensions by which the old persons can get State help up to a maximum which almost doubles their weekly pensions of [superscript 1] This figure of £94 million includes both non-contributory and contributory old age pensions, and widows' and orphans' pensions. 13